Anabolic steroids can be used in bodybuilding primarily to increase muscle mass and strength indicators. In addition, steroids help to maintain muscle mass when drying and working on relief, help to increase the performance of training, by increasing endurance and strength.
The mechanism of action of steroids
Scientific review from the expert Boris Tsatsulin about the effect of steroids on athletes and amateurs
The mechanism of action of anabolic steroids is not similar to the action of peptide hormones. Once in the blood, steroid molecules are carried throughout the body, where they react with skeletal muscle cells, sebaceous glands, hair sacs, certain areas of the brain and some endocrine glands. Anabolic steroids are soluble in fats, so they can penetrate through the cell membrane consisting of fats; inside the cell, anabolic steroids interact (bind) with the androgen receptors of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Activated androgen receptors transmit a signal inside the cell nucleus, as a result of which gene expression changes or processes that send signals to other parts of the cell are activated.As a result, the synthesis of all types of nucleic acids is stimulated and the process of formation of new protein molecules is started.
The effect of anabolic steroids on the growth of muscle mass is due to the following mechanisms:
- acceleration of protein synthesis
- reduction of recovery time
- reduction of the effect of catabolic hormones (cortisol, etc.)
- the shift of cell differentiation towards muscle cells, reducing the formation of fat cells, the
acceleration of metabolic reactions, due to which there is a breakdown of fat
- muscle memory
Effects of anabolic steroids
The effects of anabolic steroids are divided into two main categories: anabolic and androgenic.
- Significant increase in muscle mass (5-10 kg per month)
- Increase in strength indicators
- Increase endurance and performance
- An increase in the number of red blood cells
- Strengthening of bone tissue
Reduction of fat reserves
- Prostate hypertrophy
- Testicular atrophy
Loss of hair on the head, and activation of growth on the face and body
From which it can be seen that only anabolic effects are pursued in bodybuilding. Currently, steroids are being developed that have a pronounced anabolic effect and a low androgenic effect. The indicator that reflects this ratio is called the anabolic index. At the moment, almost all anabolic steroids have pronounced androgenic effects.
- Increased appetite
- Increasing self-confidence and self-esteem
- Increased sexual desire